Detroit Red Wings say farewell to Joe Louis Arena, close a chapter

Jeff Seidel , Detroit Free Press Columnist

They screamed and raised countless cups of beer and held up thousands of cell phones, trying to record this moment, as the final seconds ticked down in Joe Louis Arena three, two, one.

And it was over.

An octopus came flying onto the ice and a red light swirled over the crowd, as the Detroit Red Wings skated around the Joe, one last time. The players raised up their sticks, applauding the fans, as Auld Lang Syne blared over the loudspeakers.

Farewell, Joe.

I dont think I've never had goosebumps this many times in a game, captain Henrik Zetterberg said, after the Wings played their final game in this old arena along the riverfront, a 4-1 victory over the New Jersey Devils that turned into a wild, deafening, rollicking, sing-along.

This was more than a farewell to a hockey rink. This was like closing a door to your childhood, for both the players and fans. You remember the rink you grew up on, former forward Darren McCarty said. For most of us, this is the one we remember.

This was one last chance to savor the memories. The Cups. The quirks. The beer. The banners. The brawl. The blood. The octopi. The champagne. The chants. The smells oh, the smells. And that 25-year playoff streak, which came to an end along with this arena on Sunday afternoon.

Sure, this place might be ugly. It might not make sense by todays standards. Built with no press box. Designed with no windows facing the river. Along with the cramped concourse and scarce bathrooms. But it was our ugly.

It's been an awesome building to play in, Steve Yzerman said, just off the ice, wearing a Wings jersey once again, waiting for the postgame ceremony. Tremendous memories. But the new building will be even better. It will take the Red Wings to another level.

Early chills

The goosebumps started before the game.

Thousands of Wings fans, all of whom were born and raised in South Detroit, of course, stood on the steps, facing the Detroit River, and lined Steve Yzerman Drive seven deep in places, spilling down the grassy bank to the sidewalk and climbed up on barriers, and raised up on tippy toes along the red carpet, trying to catch a glimpse of the Red Wings.

At its core, this building was about relationships a city and a team, fathers and mothers, sons and daughters, passing a love of hockey, no, more than that, a love of this team from generation to generation.

That's why so many players came back for this game.

That's why Adam Beauregard stood in the hallway outside a suite, holding his 6-week-old son, Finn, who was given a certificate for attending his first Red Wings game.

"Had to be here," said Beauregard, 31, of Saginaw. "I got tickets last night."

Beauregard bounced up and down, trying to keep Finn content. "He likes it so far. I grew up my whole life, playing hockey, watching hockey and I'm planning the same thing for him."

A milestone

Before the game, down on the ice, Zetterberg was honored for playing in his 1,000th Red Wings game. How incredibly fitting , and a sea of red and white stood up and cheered.

Then, Yzerman came down the red carpet for the ceremonial puck drop.

Ste-vie! the fans chanted. Ste-vie! Ste-vie!

It sounded like echoes from another time, coming down from the ceiling.

"It sounded wonderful. Yeah, its pretty nice," Yzerman said. "I'm not gonna lie."

This turned into a massive reunion weekend, as about 65 former players came back to say farewell, and every moment seemed better than the last.

The last time that Karen Newman came out and sang the national anthem. As she finished, somebody chucked an octopus onto the ice. Then, here came another. And another.

"Lets go, Red Wings!" the fans chanted.

"Look around and savor it. The banners. The red plastic seats. At some point, you will get choked up," McCarty said. "How can you not? It's like you are putting down your 15-year-old golden retriever. You don't want to see it suffer."

McCarty's favorite memory was smoking a cigar on a golf cart, riding through the bowels of the arena, from the dressing room to a news conference after winning the '97 Cup. "I remember the smell, you can't forget the smell," he said. "The whole hockey. Springtime. Humidity. Sweat. Champagne. Whatever."

Relishing the moment

"Listen, I can't wait for the new arena, selfishly having a functional press box will be incredible. But at some point on Sunday afternoon, I started wishing: Don't let this endgame end too fast."

Maybe it was after Zetterberg scored, giving the Wings a 3-0 lead, and an octopus slid across the ice, followed by, what looked like, a baby one. A song blared over the loudspeakers 'A-B-C. It's easy as 1, 2, 3,' and there was Al Sobotka, waving another octopus.

Or maybe, it was when an alumni ice crew came out, a group of guys who need only one name by this crowd: Kocur, McCarty, Holmstrom, Murphy and Ciccarelli. And there was Sobotka, waving another octopus. Good grief. His arm is gonna be sore.

Or maybe, it was the sounds and music that turned into a giant sing-along.

"Josie's on a vacation far away.

"Oh! Halfway there."

Or maybe, it was when the music ended and the crowd kept signing, a cappella. "Please tell me why. My car is in the front yard. And I am sleeping with my clothes on."

Or maybe, it was the sign somebody held up and was shown on the video screen: Lemieux turtled.

We pause here to smile.

The fans mattered

Now, a word about the Red Wings fans. Because this team would be nothing without these die-hard fans, and Ryan Ives might just symbolize all of them.

It's not the most beautiful barn in the world, but it is to me, Ives said.

He wore a Red Wings mask and a Red Wings cap, not to mention Wings socks and a Dylan Larkin jersey over a Niklas Kronwall jersey. Yes,he was wearing two jerseys which covered the Red Wings tattoo down his right arm.

The Wings mean everything to me, said Ives, who grew up across the river in Leamington, Ontario a huge Wings fan, just like his father before him. When I think about the Red Wings, I think about my childhood, all the good memories with them, sitting around the house, with the old man and the mum, eating munchies, eating wings, watching the Wings play. Whether it was the good times 97, 98 or the bad times.

Now, he lives in Calgary, and he took a four-hour flight on Saturday from Calgary to London, Ontario, and then a two-hour drive to Detroit, just to see this game.

We had to come here for this game, said Ives, who dropped about 3,000 for the tickets, airfare and hotel. But money doesnt matter. We love the Wings. It means everything. Im getting emotional, just talking about it.

But now?

The Wings will head to Little Caesars Arena.

The new place is new hope, new adventures, Ives said. We got a brand-new team coming. There arent many of them left. Its all the new young guys. The streak has died with the Joe. Come on. Lets start a new streak.

The memories

What happens when your goosebumps get goosebumps?

That's what the post-game ceremony was like, a trip through the memories and a Red Wings museum come to life.

VLADDIE! VLADDIE! VLADDIE!

Ozzie! Ozzie! Ozzie!

Scotty! Scotty! Scotty!

The long, genuine, heartfelt standing ovation for the Ilitch family still grieving the loss of Mr. I.

The warm speech by Yzerman.

"Come home, Stevie!" the fans chanted. "Come home, Stevie!"

After the speeches and videos, it ended the only way it could end, with everybody singing together: Just a city boy. Born and raised in South Detroit.

Sticks shot in the air. Lights swirled. The air filled with smoke.

The lights came up, the music kept playing, and the fans kept standing at their seats. Taking pictures. Looking around.

It was like nobody wanted to leave.

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(April 7, 2017) Innovative Research's Normal Single Donor Human Plasma was recently used in the following study: 

Carcinogenic Activities and Sperm Abnormalities of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus and Inhibition of Their Virulence Potentials by Ayamycin

Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Khaled G. Abdel-Wahhab, Fathia A. Mannaa, Ayman A. Farghaly, Ahmed M. A. El-Bondkly
... Twenty microliters of each culture supernatant was added to 100 L phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 10 L human plasma (Innovative Research, Novi, MI), and 10 L S2403 (1 mg mL 1 , Diapharma group Inc ...

(April 3, 2017) Innovative Research's Normal Single Donor Human Plasma was recently used in the following study: 

Molecular impact of selective NFKB1 and NFKB2 signaling on DLBCL phenotype

X Guo, J L Koff, A B Moffitt, M Cinar, S Ramachandiran, Z Chen, J M Switchenko, M Mosunjac, S G Neill, K P Mann, M Bagirov, Y Du, Y Natkunam, H J Khoury, M R Rossi, W Harris, C R Flowers, I S Lossos, L H Boise, S S Dave, J Kowalski and L Bernal-Mizrachi...
... The ABC-DLBCL lines OCI-LY10 and OCI-LY3 and the GCB-DLBCL lines OCI-LY1, OCI-LY2 and OCI-LY19 were maintained in Iscove's medium supplemented with 20% fresh human plasma (Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA), 1% L-glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate and 50 ...

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(March 31, 2017) Innovative Research's Mouse Prealbumin ELISA Kit was recently used in the following study: 

Serum retinol-binding protein-induced endothelial inflammation is mediated through the activation of toll-like receptor 4

Mei Du, Ashley Martin, Franklin Hays, Jennifer Johnson, Rafal A. Farjo, Krysten M. Farjo, 2017...
... ELISA kits for mouse TTR (catalog no IRKTAH1161; Innovative Research, Novi, MI), mouse RBP4 (catalog no MRB400; R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), and human RBP4 (catalog no DRB400; R&D Systems) were used to quantify target molecules in serum and retina lysates. ...

(March 17, 2017) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Urine and Single Donor Human Whole Blood were recently used in the following study: 

Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants and Hydrolysis Products in Biological Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry

J McKenna, ES Dhummakupt, T Connell, P Demond... - Analyst 2017...Scientific (Fair Lawn, NJ, USA).
Raw human urine and human whole blood with K2EDTA anticoagulant was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI, USA). ......

(March 20, 2017) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Urine was recently used in the following study: 

A smartphone-based diagnostic platform for rapid detection of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses

A Priye, SW Bird, YK Light, CS Ball, OA Negrete... - Scientific Reports, 2017
... or urine) to various virus concentrations. Human sample matrices pooled from de-identified healthy donors were purchased from a commercial supplier (Innovative Research, Novi, MI). The matrices were tested by the supplier...

(March 27, 2017) Innovative Research's Heat-Inactivated Human Serum was recently used in the following study: 

Two-photon polymerization for production of human iPSC-derived retinal cell grafts

KS Worthington, LA Wiley, EE Kaalberg, MM Collins - Acta Biomaterialia, 2017
... ... dissociated and resuspended individual iPSC colonies derived from a donor with normal ocular history in 3D differentiation medium DMEM (Gibco, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Grand Island, NY), 10% heat-inactivated human serum (Innovative Research, Novi, MI).

(March 30, 2017) Innovative Research's Single Donor Human Serum was recently used in the following study: 

Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis

A Pumpuang, SJ Dunachie, P Phokrai, K Jenjaroen - PLOS Neglected Tropical , 2017
... who were admitted to Sappasithiprasong hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand, 188 serum samples obtained from healthy donors from the same area in northeast Thailand and 90 serum samples obtained from healthy US donors (Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA ...

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INNOVATIVE RESEARCH PRODUCT REFERENCES - FEBRUARY 2017

Written by jessica on April 19, 2017. Posted in Blog

(February 28, 2017) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study:  Practical applications of infrared, Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques for qualitative, quantitative and structural analysis of H Jakupovi - 2016...
Pooled normal human plasma was purchased from Innovative Research, Inc., (Novi, MI, USA). Deionized water for all the experiments was...



(February 21, 2017) Innovative Research's Bovine Red Blood Cells, Packed 100% was recently used in the following study: 

Antifungal Efficacy of an Intravenous Formulation Containing Monomeric Amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine, and Saline for Sodium Supplementation

C Alvarez, DR Andes, JY Kang, C Krug, GS Kwon - Pharmaceutical Research
...The experiment was performed in triplicate. Hemolysis Assay. To determine the hemolytic activity of different formulations, bovine red blood cells (Innovative Research, Novi, MI) were washed three times and diluted 200-fold...



(February 21, 2017) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma and Innovative Grade US Origin Sprague Dawley Rat Plasma were recently used in the following study: 

Stability studies of potent opioid analgesic, morphine 6O sulfate in various buffers and biological matrices by HPLCDAD analysis

JSK Yadlapalli, ZAF Albayati, NR Penthala - Biomedical , 2017
...cardiovascular effects, constipation, and hyperalgesia. It has been shown by many researchers that structural modification of the 3-O- ... standards (USP). Rat and Human plasma were purchased from Innovative research, Novi, MI. ...



(February 21, 2017) Innovative Research's Sheep Red Blood Cells, Packed 10% was recently used in the following study: 

Role of STARD4 in sterol transport between the endocytic recycling compartment and the plasma membrane

DB Iaea, S Mao, FW Lund, FR Maxfield - Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2017
... membrane. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials: Sheep red blood cells were purchased from Innovative Research Inc. (Novi, MI). ...



(February 14, 2017) Innovative Research's Chicken Red Blood Cells, Packed 5% was recently used in the following study:

Genome scaffolding and annotation for the pathogen vector Ixodes ricinus by ultra-long single molecule sequencing...

WJ Cramaro, OE Hunewald, L Bell-Sakyi, CP Muller - Parasites & Vectors, 2017
... Methods. Genome size determination by flow cytometry. Labeling and fixation of cells. Primary chicken red blood cells (CRBCs; Innovative Research Inc., Novi, MI, USA)



(February 14, 2017) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study: 

Targeted proteomics and absolute protein quantification for the construction of a stoichiometric host-pathogen surface density model

K Sjöholm, O Kilsgård, J Teleman, L Happonen… - Molecular & Cellular …, 2017
... Plasma adsorption Human blood plasma (pooled healthy human plasma Na-citrate, Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA) was mixed with bacteria, in a ratio 3:1, and the samples were incubated for 30 minutes at 37°C, allowing plasma proteins to adsorb to the bacterial surface...

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(January 19, 2017) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Sprague Dawley Rat Serumwas recently used in the following study:

Chiral determination of 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone enantiomers in rat serum

MD Hambuchen, H Hendrickson, SM Owens - Analytical Methods, 2016 ... Innovative Research (Novi, MI) at concentrations of 3, 100, and 1600 ng/ml to allow for analysis of (R)- and (S)-enantiomer concentrations of 1.5, 50, and 800 ng/ml. 3,4- ... serum from Innovative Research (Novi, MI), male and female SD rat serum from...



(January 19, 2017) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human AB Serum was recently used in the following study:

Determination of Renal Function and Injury Using Near-Infrared Fluorimetry in Experimental Cardiorenal Syndrome

M Ikeda, R Wakasaki, KJ Schenning, T Swide, JH Lee - American Journal of , 2017 ZW800-1 samples were diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (control) or mouse serum 151 (Innovative Research, Novi, MI) and incubated at 37C for 4h (n=16). Fluorescence was 152 measured hourly on a plate reader and expressed as percent of baseline fluorescence....



(January 10, 2017) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Porcine Whole Bloodwas recently used in the following study:

Identification and Characterization of Glycopeptides from Egg Protein Ovomucin with Anti-Agglutinating Activity against Porcine K88 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

X Sun, MG Gnzle, J Wu - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2017.
...Porcine whole blood 82 was bought from Innovative Research Inc. (Novi, MI, USA). Milli-Q water was 83 prepared by the Milli-Q water supply system



(January 9, 2017) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human AB Serum was recently used in the following study:

The lack of natural processes of delivery and neonatal intensive care treatment lead to impaired cytokine responses later in life

MV Martikainen, L KeskiNisula, H Jakupovi- American Journal of , 2017 ... Louis, USA). For functional studies, PBMCs were thawed and resuspended at 110 6 viable cells/mL in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% human AB serum (Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA), and 1% L-glutamine and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic ...



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INNOVATIVE RESEARCH PRODUCT REFERENCES - FALL 2016

Written by jessica on April 19, 2017. Posted in Blog

(November 22, 2016) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Cyno Monkey Serum was recently used in the following study:

Complement inhibition enables tumor delivery of LCMV glycoprotein pseudotyped viruses in the presence of antiviral antibodies

L Evgin, CS Ilkow, MC Bourgeois-Daigneault - Molecular Therapy , 2016... postadministration). As described with rat and mouse immune serum, neutralization was assessed following incubation of HI immune serum (1 hour; 37 C) GVB or with cynomolgus macaque serum (Innovative Research, Novi, MI)...



(November 21, 2016) Innovative Research's Premium US Origin Fetal Bovine Serumwas recently used in the following study:

Detection of drugresponsive Blymphocytes and antidrug IgG in patients with lactam hypersensitivity

MO Amali, A Sullivan, RE Jenkins, J Farrell, X Meng - Allergy, 2016...100mM L-glutamine, 100 g/ml penicillin, and 100 U/mL streptomycin. FBS and human AB serum were purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI, USA), respectively. All other culture reagents were purchased from...



(November 15, 2016) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

Characterisation of successive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a deceased haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patient

HJ Choi, MC Kil, JY Choi, SJ Kim, KS Park, YJ Kim - International Journal of , 2016... 2.6. Serum sensitivity assay. Susceptibility to 40% normal human serum (NHS) (Innovative Research, Inc., Novi, MI) was determined using a previously described method 13 with modifications. Serum susceptibilities were determined...



(November 7, 2016) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Mouse Plasma -CD-1 was recently used in the following study:

S2subsite variations between human and mouse enzymes (plasmin, factor XIa, kallikrein) elucidate inhibition differences by TFPI2 domain1wildtype, Leu17Arg

K Vadivel, Y Kumar, GI Ogueli, SM Ponnuraj - Journal of Thrombosis and.. Materials and methods Materials Citrated mouse plasma was from Innovative Research (Novi, MI)



(October 24, 2016) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Donkey Plasma was recently used in the following study:

Cross Spe-cies applicability of Anti-human plasma IgY affinity column.(2016) J Immune Serum Biol 2 (1): 1-5

SB Mark - Research article, 2016
... (Irvine CA). Donkey plasma (IDK-N) was purchased from Innov-Research, Inc. (Novi, Michigan).



(September 27, 2016) Innovative Research's Rat Albumin ELISA Kit was recently used in the following study:

Consumption of Dietary Resistant Starch Partially Corrected the Growth Pattern despite Hyperglycemia and Compromised Kidney Function in Streptozotocin-induced

GY Koh, MJ Rowling, K Schalinske, K Grapentine - 2016...Rat albumin ELISA kits were obtained from Innovative Research (Novi, 96 MI)...25-hydroxycholelcalciferol 97



(September 25, 2016) Innovative Research's Single Donor Human Red Blood Cells - Washed was recently used in the following study:

Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptides with Reduced Activation of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Have Potent Bactericidal Activity against Colistin-Resistant Bacteria

C Kao, X Lin, G Yi, Y Zhang, DA Rowe-Magnus, K Bush - mBio, 2016.... cells (hRBCs) (catalog no. IPLA-WB3-18103; Innovative Research, Inc., Novi, MI). The hRBCs were washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.4) and then resuspended in PBS. hRBC solution was mixed ...

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(November 15, 2016) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

Characterisation of successive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a deceased haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patient

HJ Choi, MC Kil, JY Choi, SJ Kim, KS Park, YJ Kim - International Journal of , 2016... 2.6. Serum sensitivity assay. Susceptibility to 40% normal human serum (NHS) (Innovative Research, Inc., Novi, MI) was determined using a previously described method 13 with modifications. Serum susceptibilities were determined



(November 7, 2016) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Mouse Plasma -CD-1 was recently used in the following study:

S2-subsite variations between human and mouse enzymes (plasmin, factor XIa, kallikrein) elucidate inhibition differences by TFPI-2 domain1-wildtype, Leu17Arg

K Vadivel, Y Kumar, GI Ogueli, SM Ponnuraj - Journal of Thrombosis and.. Materials and methods Materials Citrated mouse plasma was from Innovative Research (Novi, MI)



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(January 2, 2016) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study:

Targeted gene transfer to the brain via the delivery of brain-penetrating DNA nanoparticles with focused ultrasound

BP Mead, P Mastorakos, JS Suk, AL Klibanov, J Hanes - Journal of Controlled , 2015
... Effective shielding of the NP positive surface charge was confirmed by the near-neutral -potential ( 1.5 0.3 mV; Table 1). We further measured the stability of DNA-BPN in pooled human plasma (PHP; Innovative Research, Novi, MI); DNA-BPN retained their colloidal stability ...



(January 2, 2016) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Sprague Dawley Rat Plasma was recently used in the following study:

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W Chen, SCM Yeo, XF Chuang, HS Lin - Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical , 2015
... Pooled Sprague-Dawley rat plasma was supplied from Innovative Research (Novi, MI, USA) and used as blank matrix in the preparation of calibration standards and QC samples. 2.3. Preparation of calibration standards and QC samples. ...



(January 5, 2016) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study:

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JB Jackson, DS Choi, JD Luketich, A Pennathur - The Journal of Molecular , 2016
... Extraction of ccfDNA from pooled normal human plasma (wild-type control; Innovative Research, Novi, MI) and patient serum (1 to 3 mL per patient) was performed...



(January 5, 2016) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study:

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JE Zadina, MR Nilges, J Morgenweck, X Zhang - Neuropharmacology, 2015
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(January 9, 2016) Innovative Research's Single Donor Human Whole Blood was recently used in the following study:

PDF Direct Biofluid Analysis using Hydrophobic Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry

DE Damon, KM Davis, CR Moreira, PC Capone - Analytical Chemistry, 2016
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(January 24, 2016) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Urine was recently used in the following study:

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PK Jensen, CE Wujcik, MK McGuire, MA McGuire - Journal of Environmental Science , 2016
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(January 26, 2016) Innovative Research's Single Donor Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

HTML Cross-kingdom inhibition of breast cancer growth by plant miR159

AR Chin, MY Fong, G Somlo, J Wu, P Swiderski, X Wu - Cell Research, 2016
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(11-3-15) Innovative Research's Pooled Complement Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

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K Blauth, J Soltys, A Matschulat, CR Reiter, A Ritchie - Acta Neuropathologica, 2015
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(11-3-15) Innovative Research's Single Donor Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

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(11-7-15) Innovative Research's Human Resistin ELISA Kit was recently used in the following study:

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MG Kamath, CG Pai, A Kamath, A Kurien - 2015
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(11-7-15) Innovative Research's Sheep Anti Rat & Mouse Renin IgG Fraction was recently used in the following study:

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IMS Paulsen, H Dimke, S Frische - European Journal of Histochemistry, 2015
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(11-7-15) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Bovine Whole Blood was recently used in the following study:

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Y Ren, S Chiang, W Zhang, X Wang, Z Lin, Z Ouyang - Analytical and Bioanalytical
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(11-23-2015) Innovative Research's Human Lactoferrin ELISA Kit was recently used in the following study:

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S Becker-Dreps, WS Choi, L Stamper, S Vilchez - Journal of the Pediatric , 2015
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(11-23-15) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

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H Gu, P Zhang, J Zhu, D Raftery - Analytical Chemistry, 2015
... To develop GOT-MS, pooled human serum samples were purchased from 106 Innovative Research, Inc. (Novi, MI). For the CRC metabolomics study, serum samples 107 from 18 CRC patients and 20 healthy controls were selected from those involved in our 108 ...



(11-23-15) Innovative Research's Normal Human Breast Milk was recently used in the following study:

PDF Sensing Small Changes in Protein Abundance: Stimulation of Caco-2 Cells by Human Whey Proteins

JK Cundiff, EJ McConnell, KJ Lohe, S Maria - of Proteome Research, 2015
... Human breast milk was from Innovative Research, Inc. (Novi, MI) and the whey proteins (WP) extracted as previously described. ...



(11-27-15) Innovative Research's Mouse Serum was recently used in the following study:

PDF Identification and Characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi B-cell Superantigen Tc24

SM Gunter, KM Jones, B Zhan, HT Essigmann - The American Journal of , 2015
... cardiac puncture under anesthesia (150 mg/kg ketamine/15 mg xylazine). Pooled sera from noninfected and noninjected Balb/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, and non-Swiss albino mice were also obtained from Innovative Research (Novi, MI). ...



(11-27-15) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Sprague Dawley Rat Plasma was recently used in the following study:

Simultaneous determination of 3-mercaptopyruvate and cobinamide in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

MW Stutelberg, JK Dzisam, AR Monteil, I Petrikovics - Journal of Chromatography , 2015
... Cbi as a cyanide therapeutic in rats. Rat plasma (with Na Heparin as an anti-coagulant) was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI) and stored at -80 C until used....



(12-17-15) Innovative Research's Sheep Red Blood Cells, Packed 100% was recently used in the following study:

Tolerogenic nanoparticles to induce immunologic tolerance: Prevention and reversal of FVIII inhibitor formation

AH Zhang, RJ Rossi, J Yoon, H Wang, DW Scott - Cellular Immunology, 2015
... Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were purchased from Innovative Research, Inc., (Novi, MI)...



(12-22-15) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study:

Development and validation of a highly sensitive LCMS/MS method for the determination of acacetin in human plasma and its application to a protein binding study

SB Kim, T Lee, HS Lee, CK Song, HJ Cho, DD Kim - Archives of Pharmacal Research
... Sang-Bum KimAffiliated withNew Drug Development Center, DaeguGyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation; , Taehun LeeAffiliated withCollege of ... Pooled normal human plasma (from donors aged 1865 years) was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI, USA). ...



(12-29-15) Innovative Research's Mouse Prorenin 8x His was recently used in the following study:

Activation of ENaC in Collecting Duct Cells by Prorenin and Its Receptor PRR: Involvement of Nox4-Derived Hydrogen Peroxide

X Lu, F Wang, M Liu, KT Yang, A Nau, DE Kohan - American Journal of , 2015
... 98 Mouse prorenin (IMPREN-HIS) purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI, USA) ...

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September and October 2015 References

Written by admin on March 30, 2016. Posted in Blog

Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human AB Serum was recently used in the following study:

(9-17-15)

Exposure to a farm environment is associated with T helper 1 and regulatory cytokines at age 4.5 years

H Kaario, K Huttunen, AM Karvonen, B Schaub - Clinical & Experimental , 2015
... Louis, USA). Mean concentration of live PBMCs/stimulation was 0.8 106/ml (SD 0.3 106/ml). PBMCs were cultivated in 1 mL of 10 % human AB serum (Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA) in RPMI 1640 at 37 C and 5 % CO2 for 5 hours. Cytokine analysis ...



Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study:

(9-18-15)

Nanoscale plasma coating inhibits formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm

Y Xu, JE Jones, H Yu, Q Yu, GD Christensen, M Chen - Antimicrobial Agents and , 2015
... The sterilized coupons were then coated by overnight incubation in 135 20% (v/v) dilution of human plasma (Innovative Research, Novi, MI) in phosphate-buffered 136 saline (PBS). Coupons coated with human plasma were incubated in 1 ml Todd-Hewitt broth 137 ...



Innovative Research's Mouse PAI-1 ELISA Kit was recently used in the following study:

(10-5-15)

Neutralization of the antifibrinolytic function of plasminogen activator inhibitor1 resolves skin fibrosis

R Lemaire, T Burwell, H Sun, T Delaney, J Bakken - Arthritis & Rheumatology, 2015
... Mouse active PAI-1 and active plasmin levels were determined in plasma and skin lysates using ELISA kits as instructed by manufacturer (Innovative Research (Novi, Michigan). RNA analysis. Murine skin tissues were homogenized using a Polytron (Kinematica, Bohemia, ...



Innovative Research's Mouse Plasminogen Total ELISA Kit was recently used in the following study:

(10-5-15)

Neutralization of the antifibrinolytic function of plasminogen activator inhibitor1 resolves skin fibrosis

R Lemaire, T Burwell, H Sun, T Delaney, J Bakken - Arthritis & Rheumatology, 2015
... Mouse active PAI-1 and active plasmin levels were determined in plasma and skin lysates using ELISA kits as instructed by manufacturer (Innovative Research (Novi, Michigan). RNA analysis. Murine skin tissues were homogenized using a Polytron (Kinematica, Bohemia, ...



Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

(10-3-15)

Serum levels of phytoestrogens as biomarkers of intake in Mexican women

MR Robles-Burgeo, MI Ortega-Vlez - International Journal of..., 2015
... HPLC grade. Sodium acetate and formic acid were of reagent grade with a purity of 99% and 95%, respectively. Pooled human blank serum was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI). Study subjects and study design. ...



Innovative Research's Single Donor Human Whole Blood was recently used in the following study:

(10-3-15)

Genome Filtering for New DNA Biomarkers of Loa loa Infection Suitable for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

CB Poole, L Ettwiller, NA Tanner, TC Evans Jr, S Wanji - PloS one, 2015
... Human whole blood was obtained from Innovative Research (Novi, MI). DNA quantity was determined using a Qubit dsDNA HS Assay kit in conjunction with a Qubit 2.0 Fluorometer as directed by the manufacturer.



Innovative Research's Human Prorenin 8x His was recently used in the following study:

(10-13-15)

Direct antiinflammatory effects of angiotensin(17) on microglia

M Liu, P Shi, C Sumners - Journal of Neurochemistry, 2015
... Human PRO was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI). Immunocytochemistry Cultured microglial cells were washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) and then fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min at room temperature. ...



Innovative Research's Single Donor Human Whole Blood was recently used in the following study:

(10-13-15)

Total cobalt determination in human blood and synovial fluid using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: method validation and evaluation of performance

BD Kerger, R Gerads, H Gurleyuk, A Urban - & Environmental Chemistry, 2015
... Human tissue samples. The majority of the validation analyses were performed using single donor human whole blood or serum (Innovative Research, Novi, MI). Serum samples were also obtained from volunteers who participated ...



Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Sprague Dawley Rat Plasma was recently used in the following study:

(10-24-15)

PDF A Simple and Rapid LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of BMCL26 a Novel Anti-Parasitic Agent in Rat Plasma

RR Voggu, X Zhou, B Su, B Guo - J Anal Bioanal Tech, 2015
... Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Six individual lots of rat plasma (Sprague-Dawley rat plasmas K2) were obtained from Innovative Research (Novi, Michigan, USA) (Figure 1). Calibration standards and quality-control samples ...



Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the following study:

(10-27-15)

Regulation of fibrin-mediated tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium using anti-thrombin aptamer

ER Gaddes, D Lee, G Gydush, Y Wang, C Dong - Experimental cell research, 2015
... Pooled human plasma was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI) and all DNA sequences were obtained from Integrated DNA Technologies (Coralville, IA). The protein standard was purchased ...



Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human AB Serum was recently used in the following study:

(10-29-15)

A pig-to-mouse coronary artery transplantation model for investigating the pathogenicity of anti-pig antibody

Y Lin, N Miyagi, GW Byrne, Z Du, H Kogelberg - Xenotransplantation, 2015
... recipient 20, 31. Naive human AB serum was commercially obtained (Innovative Research, Novi, MI). This serum was depleted of anti-pig antibody using three cycles of incubation with GTKO PAECs (1 10 7 cells/cycle). All serum ...

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Mitochondria

Starting in high school biology, were taught that mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. Further down the line, we learn that mutations or malfunctions within the powerhouse can cause a host of problems including disease states.

Researchers at Case Western Reserve University discovered a protein called Kruppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) that is essential to boosting energy production within mitochondria. More importantly they noted that an absence of KLF4 reduced the production of energy, producing a phenotype that is extremely problematic for cardiac cells.

"Some cells are incredibly dependent on mitochondria, particularly the heart and brain," explained lead author Xudong Liao, Ph.D., an assistant professor of medicine at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, in the GEN article. "The brain is working all the time, too, even while we are sleeping, so it is particularly sensitive to mitochondrial function. Cancer also hijacks mitochondrial machinery to drive its spread. Therefore, the identification of KLF4 as a major regulator of mitochondrial health may have implications beyond those we detailed in this article."

KLFs regulate gene expression in many tissues. According to the article, KLF4 is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolic function, dynamics and autophagic clearance.

Looking at adult mice, researchers found that a deficiency of cardiac specific KLF4 had a potent effect on heart failure. They compared cardiac stress on normal mice and mice who had had the KLF4 gene knocked out. Nearly 50% of the knock out mice were overtaken by heart failure in a week and the rest had a stark decline in cardiac production.

Researchers hope that this study will provide the building blocks for further examination of KLF4 in tissues and possibly understand heart disease better.

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Congressional Funding

GEN released its 2015 Congressional Hall of Fame in June. The list, which features 10 representatives and 10 senators, focuses on members of Congress who have done the most to support federal spending for science research.

While the 2013 list included 30 representatives and 20 senators, the criteria for inclusion has been tightened. The guidelines were revised to be as follows: "10 representatives recognized at least five times for their support of federal spending for research in biopharma and/or all sciences, and 10 senators similarly recognized at least six times."

The compilation of awards and honors was put together through online searches of the members' biographies alongside those of announcements on organizations' web pages and of the organizations' records of past winners.

Michigan's own Fred Upton is on the list of representatives.

In alphabetical order, the list of representatives and senators is as follows:


-Rep. Michael C. Burgess, M.D. (R-TX)
-Rep. Diana DeGette (D-CO)
-Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT)
-Rep. Anna Eshoo (D-CA)
-Rep. Chaka Fattah (D-MD)
-Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA)
-Rep. David Price (D-NC)
-Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-FL)
-Rep. Fred Upton (R-MI)
-Rep. Chris Van Hollen (D-MD)


-Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
-Sen. Richard Burr (R-NC)
-Sen. Bob Casey (D-PA)
-Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME)
-Sen. Richard J. Durbin (D-IL)
-Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT)
-Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)
-Sen. Barbara Mikulski (D-MD)
-Sen. Jerry Moran (R-KS)
-Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL)

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July References

(July 9, 2015) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Wistar Rat Whole Blood was recently used in the following study:

A fluorescence assay for measuring acetylcholinesterase activity in rat blood and a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y)

MF Santillo, Y Liu - Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 2015
... (Manassas, VA, USA). Pooled whole blood from Wistar rats (containing EDTA) was purchased from Innovative Research Inc. (Novi, MI, USA). Chlorpyrifos-oxon and paraoxon were purchased from Chem Service, Inc. (West Chester, PA, USA). ...



(July 9, 2015) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Sheep Serum was recently used in the following study:

Host Specificity of Ovine Bordetella parapertussis and the Role of Complement

SE Hester, LL Goodfield, J Park, HA Feaga, YV Ivanov - PloS one, 2015
... Briefly, blood collected from C57BL/6 mice or C3 -/- mice, was pooled, incubated at room temperature for 15 minutes and centrifuged at 250 x g for 10 min. Sheep serum was obtained from Innovative Research (Novi, MI). Complement ...



(July 15, 2015) Innovative Research's Sheep Anti Rat & Mouse Renin IgG Fraction was recently used in the following study:

Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Localization of the Plasma Membrane Ca2-ATPase 4 (PMCA4) in Ca2-Transporting Epithelia

RT Alexander, MR Beggs, R Zamani, N Marcussen - American Journal of , 2015
... antibodies against endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, R&D systems, Abingdon, United Kingdom). 7) 173 Sheep polyclonal anti-body recognizing mouse and rat renin (ISASRREN-GF, Innovative Research, Novi, 174 MI, USA). 175 176...



(July 20, 2015) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Serum was recently used in the following study:

Enhanced immunogenicity of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F subunit vaccine formulated with the adjuvant GLA-SE in cynomolgus macaques

K Patton, S Aslam, C Shambaugh, R Lin, D Heeke - Vaccine, 2015
... Test samples and positive control sera (IPLA-SER, Innovative Research, Novi MI) were heat inactivated, initially diluted 1:10, and 3-fold serially diluted in virus growth medium (VGM), comprised of minimum essential medium containing Earle's balance salt solution, 1 non ...



(July 21, 2015) Innovative Research's Chicken Red Blood Cells, Packed 5% was recently used in the following study:

Production of influenza virus-like particles from stably transfected Trichoplusia ni BT1 TN-5B1-4 cells

GP Hong, JH Park, HH Lee, KO Jang, DK Chung - and Bioprocess Engineering, 2015
...a series of 2-fold dilutions of VLPs (50 L, pelleted eluates of sucrose cushion ultracentrifu- gation and fractions from sucrose gradient ultracentrifu- gation) in PBS (pH 7.2) were mixed with 25 L of 1% (v/v) chicken red blood cells (Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA) and ...



(July 22, 2015) Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Canine Plasma was recently used in the following study:

Sitagliptin Results in a Decrease of Truncated Apolipoprotein C1

NEB Skinner, MS Wroblewski, JA Kirihara - Diabetes Therapy
...Five healthy volunteers (2F/3 M, age 31.2 ? 8.6, BMI 23.2 ? 3.1) received 3-day administration of sitagliptin (100mg/day). Blood was drawn into citrate anticoagulant at baseline and 3 days. Mouse and dog plasmas were purchased from Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA.



(July 22, 2015)Innovative Research's Innovative Grade US Origin Balb C Mouse Plasma was recently used in the following study:

Sitagliptin Results in a Decrease of Truncated Apolipoprotein C1

NEB Skinner, MS Wroblewski, JA Kirihara - Diabetes Therapy
...Five healthy volunteers (2F/3 M, age 31.2 ? 8.6, BMI 23.2 ? 3.1) received 3-day administration of sitagliptin (100mg/day). Blood was drawn into citrate anticoagulant at baseline and 3 days. Mouse and dog plasmas were purchased from Innovative Research, Novi, MI, USA.



(July 22, 2015) Innovative Research's Sheep Red Blood Cells, Packed 100% was recently used in the following study:

How do duration, frequency, and intensity of exogenous CORT elevation affect immune outcomes of stress?

GL McCormick, K Shea, T Langkilde - General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2015
... We washed SRBC (Innovative Research, Novi, MI) with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and brought it to a 2% solution with PBS. We thawed 25l of plasma, diluted it 1:1 with PBS (25 L), and serially diluted this solution to 1:64 in a 96-well plate using a multichannel pipette.

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A Universal Flu Vaccine Could Be On The Way

Written by Kelsey on March 29, 2017. Posted in Blog

Flu Vaccine

During the late summer months influenza hunters visit hot zones where viruses are known to breed exponentially. Areas like these are ideal for collecting data and samples that can be used to create the next seasonal flu vaccine.

However, researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have developed a universal vaccines that has the potential to protect against a broad range of influenza strains.

"The reason researchers change the vaccine every year is that they want to specifically match the vaccine to the particular viruses that are circulating, such as H1N1. If the vaccine is just a little bit different to the target virus, it is not expected to offer much protection," explained senior author Jeffery Taubenberger, M.D., Ph.D., chief of the Viral Pathogenesis and Evolution Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at NIAID, in GEN News.

This study used a new approach that focused on hemagglutinin and expressing its subtypes. Taubenbergers hypothesis was that if they were able to present the different proteins, a cross-protective immunity would develop and give greater protection against multiple strains of the flu. They chose to work with subtypes H1, H3, H5 and H7 as they have had the greatest loss of life and the greatest potential to spread from birds to humans respectively.

"Almost all of the animals that were vaccinated survived, including mice that were challenged with viruses that expressed hemagglutinin subtypes that were not in the vaccine at all, viruses that expressed H2, H6, H10, and H11," noted Dr. Taubenberger. "What that suggests is that this approach really gives us broad spectrum protection, and could serve as a basis for an effective pre-pandemic vaccine."

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Beethoven Mouse

After focusing on the transmembrane channel-like protein 1 (TMC1) gene, researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School were able to restore hearing in mice with deafness caused through genetic disorders using gene therapy.

According to GEN News, “TMC1 forms a channel that allows calcium to enter the cell when moved by sound waves, including an electrical signal that is sent to the brain and interpreted as an auditory signal.” Close to 8% of genetic deafness cases are the result of TMC1 issues.

While not yet ready for clinical trials, senior author Jeffrey Holt, Ph.D., associate professor of otolaryngology explains that this type of gene therapy could be developed for use in humans.

Along with his colleagues, Dr. Holt designed a virus to contain a working copy of TMC1 and a promoter sequence, to make sure that the gene was turned on correctly. This was injected into the inner ear of two different mouse strains. In the first, TMC1 was completely deleted and in the second, the Beethoven mice, a mutation was present where TMC1 was rendered ineffective.

In order to test the hearing of mice that received the virus, scientists placed them in a “startle box,” where loud tones were sounded and the reaction of the mice were measured and observed through a force plate on the floor below them. Surprisingly, both strains of mice were able to detect the auditory signals.

Researchers also observed that the mice who had received gene therapy were able to hear addition sounds in the 80-decibel range.

Dr. Holt’s hope is to start clinical trials of TMC1 gene therapy within 5 to 10 years through a partnership with Boston Children’s department of otolaryngology.

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Histone Turnover

While brain cells do not divide, and the ones a person is born with must last a lifetime, new research shows that overtime genes are turned on and off depending on the stimuli present.

Through a process called histone turnover gene expression can be altered in response to changes in the environment. In histone turnover, histone spools in brain cells, the place where genes are wound, are almost constantly being swapped out and replaced.

The frequency with which the brain swaps out histone spools could explain its ability to adapt to changing circumstances.

Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and at Rockefeller University, according to GEN News, published an article noting that histone turnover regulates how genes in the brain are turned on and off in response to various stimuli, thereby allowing neurons to form new synaptic connections.

Scientists looked at H3.3, a version of histone H3, known to cause frequent histone turnovers when present in cells. Using a technique called 14C/12C bomb pulse, they measured turnover and confirmed through comparisons of samples from time of death and time of birth that H3.3 turnover does occur throughout life in the human brain.

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June References

(June 17, 2015) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Plasma was recently used in the below study:

A rapid LCMRM/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of choline, betaine, trimethylamine, trimethylamine Noxide and creatinine in human plasma and urine

X Zhao, S Zeisel, S Zhang - ELECTROPHORESIS, 2015
... USA). 2.2 Plasma and urine collection Pooled human plasma was purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI, USA), which was collected from single donors of age between 18 and 65. The plasma was acidified by adding...



(June 18, 2015) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Urine was recently used in the following study:

Use of Charged Nanoparticles in NMR-based Metabolomics for Spectral Simplification and Improved Metabolite Identification

B Zhang, M Xie, L Bruschweiler-Li, K Bingol - Analytical Chemistry, 2015
... EXPERIMENTAL SECTION Chemicals and Materials A pooled urine sample from healthy humans was obtained from (Innovative Research, Inc., Novi, MI). The following metabolites were obtained for the preparation of model Page 4 of 25 ACS Paragon Plus Environment ...



(June 22, 2015) Innovative Research's Pooled Normal Human Urine was recently used in the following study:

Surface Tension Triggered Wetting and Point of Care Sensor Design

EJ Falde, ST Yohe, MW Grinstaff - Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2015
... As proof of concept, we tested human urine (Innovative Research, Novi, MI) after adding a bile acid (deoxycholic acid, Alfa Aesar) until the surface tension as measured by the pendant drop method was either 54 mN m 1 (healthy) or 50 mN m 1 (diseased state).



(June 23, 2015) Innovative Research's Balb C Mouse Plasma was recently used in the following study:

Imaging bradykinin B1 receptor with 68Ga-labeled des-Arg10 kallidin derivatives: effect of the linker on biodistribution and tumor uptake

G Amouroux, J Pan, S Jenni, C Zhang, Z Zhang - Molecular Pharmaceutics, 2015
...Balb/c mouse plasma for stability studies was obtained from Innovative Research (Novi, MI). B1R-targeting peptides were synthesized using solid phase approach on an Aapptec (Louisville, KY) Endeavor 90 peptide synthesizer.

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New Model of MS May Lead to Better Therapeutic Options

Written by Kelsey on June 24, 2015. Posted in Blog

Neurons

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases as it produces antibodies that attack the brain and spine. Ravaging myelin, a neuron insulator, the attacks from these antibodies lead to scarring and lesions which can cause weakness, pain and walking difficulties among other issues.

However, a new theory focused on MS may be used to help develop new treatments for the disease. Stephen Krieger, a neurologist at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, established this theory with the goal of looking at MS as one disease, rather than a disease with subtypes.

Traditionally, MS is divided into four subtypes: relapsing-remitting disease, primary and secondary progressive MS, and progressive-relapsing MS. The symptoms and lasting effects of each type are progressively worse and more damaging to neurological functions.

According to Scientific American, Krieger’s hypothesis is like a swimming pool in need of repair, “Imagine a pool with mountains rising up from the bottom. The mountains represent scars in the central nervous system; the water surface is the threshold at which symptoms appear. Lesions below the water line do not cause symptoms whereas those jutting out of the water do.”

In Krieger’s theory, the older we get and the further MS progresses, the less the brain is able to compensate for the injured areas, which is akin to water slowly leaking out of the pool exposing more mountains (lesions) and their symptoms make themselves known. He refers to his theory as a topographical model.

If correct, this hypothesis could change the four subtypes to the four stages of MS. Krieger notes that though there are periods of “remission” with MS patients, the old lesions are still present in MRI scans. Though the symptoms seem to disappear, it appears that the brain is able to compensate for the damage more effectively during these periods.

While still a new theory, it is catching the eye of many researchers in the field. The concept that MS is caused by a body’s worsening immune activity and its declining brain health may provide new methods of treatment and understanding.

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