Research Performed Using Animal Serum
Serum is the fluid segment of the blood that is not clotted containing the red and white cells and platelets. It’s the coagulation that makes the difference between serum and plasma.
Animal serum are regularly utilized as a part of cell culture research, serum provide proteins, nutrients, attachment factors, trace element, growth factors, and hormones which helps in the development of the cells. In spite of the fact that FBS (fetal bovine serum) is the most regularly utilized serum, numerous serums are also accessible. Serum has been in use for quite a long time in cell culture since it gives a close representative of what cells would obtain in the body. The major component of serum for health and growth include albumin, transferring, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and different other nutritive and protective factors.
Cell culture is a strategy by which cell behavior can be studied independent of the whole organism. In biological research cells are taken from a plant or animal and grown under controlled conditions. The process of cell culture involves removing a cell from a plant or animal and their subsequent growth in a serum. The cell might be removed from the tissue directly and disaggregated by an enzyme or mechanical means before development in a serum.
Cell culture can be comprehensively classified into three distinct categories: Primary cell culture which includes the extraction of cells from the tissue and processed to establish under culture conditions in a serum. Secondary cell culture which result from the Sub-culture of primary cells while cell line is produced from a solitary cell and has a uniform generic composition. The cell line can be either finite or continuous cell line.
Cell culture has been used as a major tool in biological research by giving excellent model system for studying the biochemistry and physiology of cells, the impacts of drugs and toxic compounds on the cells and so on. It is also used in drug screening and the development of biological compounds on a large scale. Other uses of animal serum for cell culture include the following:
Cancer Research: cells can be exposed to radiation, chemicals and viruses to make them cancerous. However, the mechanism and cause for cancer and the altered pathways can be studied with the aid of animal serum. It can likewise be used for determination of effective drugs for cancerous cells. The side effect of cancer treatments (chemotherapy and irradiation) on normal cells can be studied in this context as well.
Virology: Isolation, growth and development cycles and the detection of viruses can be studied. Cells cultures are also essential when studying the mode of infection.
Toxicity Testing and drug screening: Cell cultures are used in the study of cytotoxicity of new drugs (to study the effect and safe dosage) as well as drug carriers (nanoparticles). It is helpful for the synthesis or production of different biomolecules at an industrial scale. This is especially helpful in the pharmaceutical industry. Different research projects on cell-based therapeutic products, using cell culture are being developed. Animal cell culture is used in place of animal models to test the effects of new drugs, cosmetics and chemicals. They are also used to determine the permissible dosage of new drugs.
Vaccine Production: In the production of viruses, cell cultures are mainly used, the viruses are then used to produce vaccines for diseases such as (polio, rabies, chicken pox, measles and hepatitis).
Genetic Engineering Proteins: Genetically important proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, hormones, insulin and many more are produced commercially with the aid of cell culture.
Prenatal diagnosis: Amniotic fluid from pregnant women is extracted and the cells are cultured for the study of chromosomes abnormalities, genes using karyotyping, and used in the early detection of fetal disorders.
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