Recombinant Mouse CXCL12
Recombinant Mouse CXCL12 is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes. During embryogenesis it directs the migration of hematopoietic cells from foetal liver to bone marrow and the formation of large blood vessels. Mice that were knocked-out for CXCL12 gene were lethal before the birth or within just 1 hour of life. In adulthood, CXCL12 plays an important role in angiogenesis by recruiting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow through a CXCR4 dependent mechanism. It is this function of CXCL12 that makes it a very important factor in carcinogenesis and the neovascularisation linked to tumour progression. CXCL12 also has a role in tumor metastasis where cancer cells that express the receptor CXCR4 are attracted to metastasis target tissues that release the ligand, CXCL12.9 In breast cancer, however, increased expression of CXCL12 determines a reduced risk of distant metastasis. In 2011, CXCL12 was shown to be responsible for recruiting macrophages to breast tumours in mice in response to the experimental anti-cancer drug combretastatin A-4 phosphate, which damages tumour blood vessels. This macrophage recruitment is believed to stimulate tumour blood vessel growth, counteracting the effects of the drug.